The goal framework quicker the potential for recall and possibilities biases, in addition to higher level out-of storage shorter prejudice due to a great losings to adhere to-right up. Eating plan is analyzed many times while in the go after-right up, and this grabbed under consideration changes in dinner practices and you will smaller aspect error; yet not, particular mistake are inescapable. Whether or not shots was indeed self-said, research physicians, lacking the knowledge of the brand new thinking-reported chance grounds condition regarding users, analyzed participants’ medical suggestions to confirm the newest heart attack analysis and categorize brand new coronary attack variety of. But not, as the twenty-four% of females that have coronary arrest regarding NHS I and you can thirty two% in the NHS II did not provide permission to examine their scientific information, we were unable to categorize the strokes while the ischemic otherwise hemorrhagic; thus, this new numbers of heart attack brands had been reduced. Nonetheless, the large number of players and much time lifetime of realize-right up provided sufficient capacity to select medically associated differences in risks out-of full stroke and you may stroke versions. On top of that, new current meta-analyses given assistance for our findings on the dietary intakes regarding magnesium, potassium, and calcium and you can chance of total heart attack. A major limitation of your latest analysis try the inability so you can independent the newest separate outcomes of the 3 vitamins with far certainty of the higher correlations between the two. And additionally, since studies inhabitants predominantly contained Caucasian female ( 12), the results of your own most recent investigation is almost certainly not generalizable so you’re able to guys otherwise ethnically diverse populations.
To conclude, results from these dos high possible studies offer strong proof to help you support an enthusiastic inverse relationship anywhere between shared intakes from magnesium, potassium, and you will calcium supplements of diet and coronary attack chance. The fresh independent character of every mineral regarding reduction of coronary arrest chance is tough so you’re able to describe. At the same time, the effect of those nutritional elements towards the danger of heart attack independent from dining supply is difficult so you’re able to establish. This research supports the recommendations of your own Dietary Solutions to End Blood pressure level, Optimal Macronutrient Consumption Demo to eliminate Heart disease, and you will Mediterranean diet, and therefore provide highest weight loss intake of these vitamins.
The fresh new authors’ commitments was basically as follows-SNA: performed statistical analyses and you will published the fresh new manuscript; DS, WCW, and you can KMR: given important feedback of manuscript; and all of experts: see and recognized the past manuscript. Not one of one’s article authors claimed a dispute interesting related to the research.
Backed by the brand new NIH (gives UM1CA176726, UM1CA186107, D43TW009106, HL34594, CA87969, and you may HL088521) and also the Bernard Lown Heart disease Program (so you’re able to SNA).
Information was obtained on potential confounding factors, including medical history, other aspects of dietary intake, and lifestyle behaviors that could be associated with intake of these minerals and risk of stroke. These variables were updated biennially and included cigarette smoking (never, past, or current), physical activity (<3, 3 to <9, 9 to <18, 18 to <27, or ?27 metabolic equivalent tasks per week), menopausal status (premenopausal or postmenopausal), postmenopausal hormone therapy use (never, past, or current), parental history of early myocardial infarction (before age 60 y), multivitamin use (yes or no), thiazide use (yes or no), aspirin use at least 2 times/wk (yes or no), and history of hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia (yes or no). Height and weight were self-reported at baseline, and weight was updated from follow-up questionnaire responses. BMI (in kg/m 2 ) was calculated as weight divided by height squared. BMI was divided into 3 categories (i.e., <25, 25 to <30, and ?30). Quintiles were calculated for total energy intake (kcal), and we used alcohol consumption categories of 0, 0 to <5, 5 to <10, 10 to <15, and ?15 g/d.
Age-standard features out of 86,149 ladies in the latest NHS I when you look at the 1994 and 94,715 ladies in the fresh NHS II for the 1995 by the quintiles out-of magnesium, potassium, and you can calcium consumption 1
Pooled RRs (95% CIs) regarding total, ischemic, and you may hemorrhagic shots by the quintiles out of total and you may slimming down potassium intake into the 86,149 ladies in the latest NHS We and you can 94,715 ladies in the fresh new NHS II 1
Of the seemingly highest amount of correlation ranging from such vitamins, we plus tested a blended magnesium, potassium, and calcium diet plan score ( Table 5). To own assessment of females regarding highest having reduced quintiles off mutual magnesium, potassium, and you can calcium eating plan rating, the fresh new pooled multivariate RR to own full heart attack is actually 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.91; P-development = 0.003). Findings have been comparable to own ischemic although not hemorrhagic coronary attack.
This new relation between intakes of magnesium, potassium, and you may calcium and you may threat of heart attack found in the current research is much like the brand new loved ones anywhere between consumption of those vitamins and you can risk of IHD. When you look at the prospective degree, weight loss consumption out of magnesium and potassium was basically inversely with the risk out-of IHD ( 46, 47), however, there is certainly zero relatives with calcium supplements consumption and you may likelihood of IHD in women ( 48). Together with, consumption out-of magnesium and you can calcium not potassium was in fact on the all the way down threat of CVD mortality in certain ( 24, 46, 49) although not all ( 50) knowledge.